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Andhra Pradesh

            Andhra Pradesh or AP, the "Rice Bowl of India", is a state in southern India. It lies between 1241' and 22N latitude and 77 and 8440'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is the 4th largest state in India by area and population. It is the largest and most populous state in South India. The state is crossed by two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna. Historically this land was known as Andhrapatha, Andhra-mandalamu, Andhra-vishaya, Andhra-avani, Andhradesa, etc

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. It is the 4th Largest state in India. The northern part of the plateau is generally considered as the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated, roughly, by the River Krishna. The plains to the east of Eastern ghats form the coastal plain region. The Eastern ghats are discontinuous and have local names for individual sections. The kadapa basin formed by two arching branches of the eastern ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastal plains are, for a major part, delta regions formed by the rivers Godavari, Krishna, and Penner. The Eastern ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern ghat region also is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the ghats give way to the deccan plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. West and South west parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. The major role in determining the climate of the state is played by monsoons. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20C and 41C.

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the North-East Monsoons. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the north-east monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. Winters in Andhra Pradesh are pleasant. November, December, January and February are the winter months in AP. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold in those regions. The range of winter temperature is generally 12C to 30C.

Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city of the state and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Vijayawada due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes is a major trading center and the third largest city. Other important cities and towns are: Kakinada, Warangal, Guntur, Rajahmundry, Tirupati, Srikakulam, Machilipatnam, Tenali, Ongole, Kurnool, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Nellore, Repalle,Bhimavaram, Narsapuram and Eluru.