Goa, Travel, Hotel, Accommodation, India

History of Goa

 

 

Goa's known history stretches back to the 3rd century BC, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire. It was later ruled by the Satavahanas of Kolhapur, around two thousand years ago and passed on to the Hoysalas of SInd, who controlled it between 580 to 750. Over the next few centuries Goa was successively ruled by the Silharas, the Kadambas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani, rulers of Deccan India. The Kadambas, a local Hindu dynasty based at Chandrapura, (present day Chandor - Salcete), laid an indelible mark on the course of Goa's pre-colonial history and culture.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. However, the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 they were forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell to the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who made Velha Goa their auxiliary capital.

In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first European to set foot in India through a sea route, landing in Calicut (Kozhikode) in Kerala, followed by an arrival in what is now known as Old Goa. Goa, then a term referring to the City of Goa on the southern bank of the River Mandovi, was the largest trading centre on India's western coast. The Portuguese arrived with the intention of setting up a colony and seizing control of the spice trade from other European powers after traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks. Later, in 1510, Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The Portuguese intended it to be a colony and a naval base, distinct from the fortified enclaves established elsewhere along India's coasts. In 1668, Chatrapti Shivaji captured five towns in North Goa and ordered renovation of "Saptkotishwar" temple at the present site during one of his campaigns to oust the Portuguese. Even after repetitive attempts of he was not able to win the Goa from Portuguese.[20]In 1685, Chatrapti Sambhaji captured capital Panji and penetrated his Maratha army peacefully in entire Central and North Goa but could not retain the Goa and again moved to Deccan plateau to handle the situation arise due to sudden attack of Mogul.


Ruins of Fort Aguada in north Goa; one of the defences that the Portuguese built during their reign.With the imposition of the Inquisition (15601812), many of the local residents were forcibly converted to Christianity by missionaries, threatened by punishment or confiscation of land, titles or property.[7] Many converts however retained parts of their Hindu heritage. To escape the Inquisition and harassment, thousands fled the state, settling down in the neighbouring towns of Mangalore and Karwar in Karnataka, and Savantwadi in Maharashtra. With the arrival of the other European powers in India in the 16th century, most Portuguese possessions were surrounded by the British and the Dutch. Goa soon became Portugal's most important possession in India, and was granted the same civic privileges as Lisbon. In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. By mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's demand to relinquish their control of its enclave. Resolution 1541 by the United Nations General Assembly in 1960 noted that Goa was non-self-governing and favoured self determination. Finally, on December 12, 1961, the Indian army with 40,000 troops moved in as part of Operation Vijay. Fighting lasted for twenty-six hours before the Portuguese garrison surrendered. Goa, along with Daman and Diu (enclaves lying to the north of Maharashtra), was made into a centrally administered Union Territory on India. India's takeover of Goa is commemorated on December 19 (Liberation Day). The UN Security Council considered a resolution condemning the invasion which was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Most nations later recognised India's action, and Portugal recognised it after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. On May 30, 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was elevated as India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining Union

   
 
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